Pages, Numbers and Keynote on your Mac are the Google equivalent of Docs, Sheets and Slides, or Microsoft's equivalent of Word, Excel and PowerPoint.
Google Docs is very popular because of its ability to share and collaborate with fellow users using your favorite web browser.
However, Apple's office apps have a collaboration tool built right in, and the people you're working with don't have to own a Mac. You can send an invite to any document by clicking on the Collaborate button on each of these application to send the invite. From there you can also set permissions, and require a password to access the link. You can then work together on a document in real time, just like you would with Google Docs.
In addition to the Mac, collaboration is also built into Pages, Numbers and Keynote on iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and online on iCloud.com.
For more information on collaborating with Pages, Numbers and Keynote, please see: https://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT206181